Separation minimums for terminal control areas TCAs around airports are lower than en-route standards. Occasionally weather considerations cause delays to aircraft prior to their departure as routes are closed by thunderstorms.

From hands-on experience to college credit toward a degree, the path begins here. Aircraft maintenance technician Aircraft ground handler Baggage handler Flight dispatcher. Instead of radar "finding" a target by interrogating the transponder, the ADS-equipped aircraft sends a position report as determined by the navigation equipment on board the aircraft.

Today's flight service stations do not issue control instructions, but provide pilots with many other flight related informational services. All this information is distributed to modern operational display systems , making it available to controllers.